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Weed Science

Anil Shrestha                                                      

Professor, Weed Science, Department of Plant Science

PhD, Michigan State University,

MS, Cornell University

BSc(Ag), Narendra Dev Univ. of Agri. & Tech, India

Anil Shrestha Headshot



PLANT 160 Weed Science

PLANT 165 Pesticides

PLANT 170T/250T Agroecology


PLANT 270 Seminar in Plant Science


Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Crop Improvement

Academic Editor, PLOS ONE

Associate Editor, Agricultural & Environmental Letters

Editorial Board Member, Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems (Previously Journal of Sustainable Agriculture)

Editor-in-Chief, Fundamental and Applied Agriculture (Bangladesh)



Mitchell, J. P., S. B. Cappellazzi, R. Schmidt, J. Chiartas, A. Shrestha, D. Reicosky, H. Ferris, X. Zhang, T. A. Ghezzehei, S. Araya, C. Kelly, S. J. Fonte, S. E. Light, G. Liles, T. Willey, R. Roy, M. Bottens, C. Crum, W. R. Horwath, G. M. Koch, and K. M. Scow. 2024. No-tillage, surface residue retention, and cover crops improved San Joaquin Valley soil health in the long term. California Agriculture.

Fernando, M., N. Scott, A. Shrestha, S. Gao, and L. Hale. 2024. A native plant species cover crop positively impacted vineyard water dynamics, soil health, and vine vigor. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment.


Galvan, K., K. Waselkov, and A. Shrestha. 2023 Environmental influences on common waterhemp germination and tolerance to salinity and herbicides. Agronomy Journal

Schaeffer, J., K. J. Hembree, and A. Shrestha. 2023. Biology, germination ecology, and shade tolerance of alkaliweed (Cressa truxillensis) and its response to common postemergence herbicides. Plants, 12(14), 2679;

Gomes, A.M., A. DeVincentis, S. S. Solis, D. Zaccaria, D. Munk, K. M. Bali, A. Shrestha, K. Gould, and J. P. Mitchell. 2023. Long-term reduced tillage and winter cover crops can improve soil quality without depleting moisture. California Agriculture 77:4-14.

Fernando, M. and A. Shrestha. 2023. "The Potential of Cover Crops for Weed Management: A Sole Tool or Component of an Integrated Weed Management System?" Plants 12, no. 4: 752.


Shrestha, A., V. Maier, K. M. Steinhauer, T. Frnzyan, and I. Navarro. 2022. Hairy fleabane (Erigeron bonariensis) germination in response to temperature, osmotic potential, pH, and salinity levels and seed dormancy periods. Agronomy Journal 114:2552-2561. 

Shrestha, A., K. Saichaie, T. Johnson, W. Brown, L. Altier, D. Goorahoo, and J. Mitchell. 2022. Can videos be a useful tool to enrich classroom learning in an applied science such as vegetable production? Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice 22(2):165-179.


Mitchell, J.P., A. Shrestha, L. Epstein, J.A. Dahlberg, T. Ghezzehei, S. Araya, B. Richter, S. Kaur, P. Henry, D. S. Munk, S. Light, M. Bottens, and D. Zaccaria. 2021. No-tillage sorghum and garbanzo yields match or exceed standard tillage yields. California Agriculture 75(3):112-120.

Anwar, M.P., A.K.M. Mominul Islam, S. Yeasmin, M.H. Rashid, A.S. Juraimi, S. Ahmed, and A. Shrestha. 2021. Weeds and their responses to management efforts in a changing climate. Agronomy 2021, 11, 1921.

Kelly, C.., S. Fonte, A. Shrestha, K. Daane, and J.P. Mitchell. 2021. Winter cover crops and no-till promote soil macrofauna communities in irrigated, Mediterranean cropland in California, USA. Applied Soil Ecology (In press).

Shrestha, A., M.P. Anwar, A.K.M. Mominul Islam, T. Gurung, S. Dhakal, A. Tanveer, M.M. Javaid, M. Nadeem, and N.A. Ikram.2021.Weed science as a new discipline and its status in some south Asian universities and colleges: Examples from Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, and Pakistan. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources.


Angeles, J., K. J. Hembree, D. Goorahoo, and A. Shrestha. 2020. Response of tomato transplants to varying soil residual levels of preplant herbicides. Journal of Crop Improvement 34:697-714.

Joshi, B.K., R. Shrestha, D. Gauchan, and A. Shrestha. 2020. Neglected, underutilized and future smart crop species in Nepal. Journal of Crop Improvement 34:293-313..


Lamsal, A., M. P. Devkota, D. S. Shrestha, S. Joshi, and A. Shrestha. 2019. Seed germination ecology of Ageratum houstonianum: A major invasive weed in Nepal. PLoS ONE 14(11): e0225430.

Bhatta L.D., A. Shrestha, N. Neupane, N.S. Jodha, and WU, N. 2019. Shifting dynamics of nature, society and agriculture in the Hindu Kush Himalayas: Perspectives for future mountain development. Journal of Mountain Science 16:1133-1149.

Shakya, B., A. Shrestha, G. Sharma, T. Gurung, D. Mihin, S. Yang, A. Jamir, S. Win, X. Han, Y. Yang, D. Choudhury, and F. Schneider. 2019. Visualizing Sustainability of Selective Mountain Farming Systems from Far-eastern Himalayas to Support Decision Making. Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1714; doi:10.3390/su11061714

Grantz, D., R. Paudel, and A. Shrestha. 2019. Tolerance of Ozone and Drought in common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis). Journal of Crop Improvement33:236-253.


Shrestha, A., S. Budhathoki, and K. M. Steinhauer. 2018. Temperature effects on glyphosate resistance in California populations of junglerice. Agronomy Journal 110:1624-1626.

Mosqueda, E., R. Smith, D. Goorahoo, and A. Shrestha. 2017. Automated lettuce thinners reduce labor requirements and increase speed of thinning. California Agriculture 72(2):114-119.

Shrestha, A., L. deSouza, P. Yang, L. Sosnoskie, and B. D. Hanson. 2018. Differential tolerance of glyphosate-susceptible and –resistant biotypes of junglerice (Echinochloa colona) to environments during germination, growth, and intra-specific competition. Weed Science 66: 340-346

Parry, S., and A. Shrestha. 2018. Effect of weed-free periods on organic Romaine lettuce production. Journal of Crop Improvement 32:124-139.


Mitchell, J. P., A. Shrestha, K. Mathesius, K. M. Scow, R. J. Southard, R. Haney, R. Schmidt, D. S. Munk, and W. R. Horwath. 2017. Cover cropping and no-tillage improve soil health in an arid irrigated cropping system in California's San Joaquin Valley. Soil and Tillage Research 165:325-335.


Bossange, A., K. M. Knudson, A. Shrestha, R. Harben, and J. P. Mitchell. 2016. The potential for conservation tillage adoption in the San Joaquin Valley, California: A Qualitative study of farmer perspectives and opportunities for extension. PLoS ONE 11(12): e0167612. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167612

Shrestha, A., R. Cox, Y. Wu, O. Robles, L. deSouza, S. D. Wright, and J. Dahlberg. 2016. Moisture and salt tolerance of a forage and grain sorghum hybrid during germination and establishment. Journal of Crop Improvement 30:668-683.

Shrestha, A., K. Steinhauer, B. Hanson, M. Jasieniuk, K. J. Hembree, and S. D. Wright. 2016. Growth and development of fall- and spring-planted populations of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis. International Journal of Pest Management 62:300-307.

Rios, S., S. D. Wright, G. Banuelos, and A. Shrestha. 2016. Tolerance of Amaranthus palmeri populations from California to postemergence herbicides at various growth stages. Crop Protection 87:6-12.

Mitchell, J. P., A. Shrestha, and D. S. Munk. 2016. Cotton response to long-term no-tillage and cover cropping in the San Joaquin Valley. Journal of Cotton Science 20:8-17.

Pokorny, A., J. Smilanick, C. Xiao, J. J. Farrar, and A. Shrestha. 2016. Determination of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea from strawberry in the Central Coast Region of California. Plant Health Progress 17:30-34.

Mitchell, J. P., A. Shrestha, J. Dahlberg, D. Munk, and K. Hembree. 2016. Prospect of no-till planting of sorghum with and without cover cropping in the San Joaquin Valley. Crop, Forage, and Turfgrass Management 2:(1).

Mitchell, J. P., R. Harben, G. Sposito, A. Shrestha et al. 2016. Conservation agriculture: Systems thinking for sustainable farming. California Agriculture 70(2):53-56.

Mitchell, J. P., A. Shrestha, J. Hollingsworth, D. S. Munk, K. J. Hembree, and T. A. Turini. 2016. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops. California Agriculture 70(2):62-70.

Orloff, S., E. Brummer, A. Shrestha,and D. Putnam. 2016. Cool-season perennial grasses differ in tolerance to partial-season irrigation deficits. Agronomy Journal 108:692-700.

Paudel, R., D. A. Grantz, H. Vu, and A. Shrestha. 2016. Tolerance of elevated ozone and water stress in a California population of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.). Weed Science 64:276-284.

Moretti, M., L. M. Sosnoskie, A. Shrestha, S. D. Wright, K. J. Hembree, M. Jasieniuk, and B. D. Hanson. 2016. Distribution of Conyza sp. in orchards of California and response to glyphosate and paraquat. Weed Science 64:339-347.

Dennis, M., K. J. Hembree, J. Bushoven, and A. Shrestha. 2016. Growth stage, temperature, and time of year affects the control of glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-paraquat resistant Conyza bonariensis with saflufenacil. Crop Protection 81:129-137.

Mitchell, J. P., L.M. Carter, D.C. Reicosky, A. Shrestha, G.S. Pettygrove, K.M. Klonsky, D.B. Marcum, D. Chessman, R. Roy, P. Hogan, and L. Dunning. 2016. A history of tillage in California’s Central Valley. Soil and Tillage Research 157:52-64.

Grantz, D., R. Paudel, Vu. H., A. Shrestha, N. Grulke. 2016. Diel trends in stomatal response to ozone and water; A unique relationship of midday values to growth and allometry in Pima cotton. Plant Biology 18 (Suppl. 1):37-46.


Mitchell, J. P., A. Shrestha, and S. Irmak. 2015. Trade-offs between winter cover crop production and soil water depletion in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 70:430-440.

Wright, S. D., R. B. Hutmacher, A. Shrestha, G. Banuelos, S. Rios, K. Hutmacher, D. S. Munk, and M. P. Keeley. 2015. Impact of Early Defoliation on California Pima cotton boll opening, lint yield and quality. Journal of Crop Improvement 29:528-541.

Moretti, M., A. Shrestha, K. J. Hembree, and B. D. Hanson. 2015. Postemergence control of glyphosate-paraquat resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) in tree nut orchards in the Central Valley of California. Weed Technology 29:501-508.

Shrestha, A., J. P. Mitchell, and K. J. Hembree. 2015. Weed seedbank characterization in long-term cotton-tomato rotations in California. Agronomy Journal 107:597-604.

Mitchell, J. P., A. Shrestha, W. R. Horwath, R. J. Southard, N. Madden, J. Veenstra, and D. S. Munk. 2015. Tillage and cover cropping affect crop yields and soil carbon in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Agronomy Journal 107:588-596.

Okada, M., B. D. Hanson, K. J. Hembree, Y. Peng, A. Shrestha, C. N. Stewart Jr., S. D. Wright, and M. Jasieniuk. 2015. Evolution and spread of glyphosate resistance in Conyza bonariensis in California and a comparison with closely related C. canadensis. Weed Research 55:173-184.

Shrestha, A., A. Rodriguez, S. Pasakdee, and G. Bañuelos. 2015. Comparative efficacy of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seed meals as bioherbicides in organic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and spinach (Spinacea oleracea) production. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 46:33-46.


Krupnik, T.J., K. Naher, S. Islam, M. A. Hoque, A. Roy, V. Kumar, I. Hossain, K. Hossain, S. Shahrin, M. K. Gathala, A. Shrestha, and S. M. N. Uddin. 2016. Integrated Weed Management: Experiential learning modules for sustainable intensification and agriculture service provision. CIMMYT-Bangladesh. 103 p.


Clements, D.R., M. Upadhyaya, S. Joshi, and A. Shrestha. 2021. Introduction to invasion biology. In Clements, D.R., M.K. Upadhyaya, S. Joshi, and A. Shrestha (ed.). 2021. Global Plant Invasions. Springer, NY, pp. 1-28.

Upadhyaya, M., D.R. Clements, and A. Shrestha. 2021. Persistence strategies of weeds: Synopsis and the future. In Upadhyaya, M.K., D.R. Clements, and A. Shrestha (ed.). Persistence strategies of weeds. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 225-351.

Shrestha, A., D.R. Clements, and M. Upadhyaya. 2021. Persistence strategies of weeds: Introduction. In Upadhyaya, M.K., D.R. Clements, and A. Shrestha (ed.). Persistence strategies of weeds. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 1-18.

Jeranyama, P., A. Shrestha, and N. Neupane. 2019. Sustainable food systems: scope, relevance and important milestones. In L. Rusinamhodzi (ed.) The role of ecosystem services in sustainable food systems. Elsevier Science, Academic Press. (ISBN-13: 978-0128164365).

Mitchell, J. P., H. Ferris, A. Shrestha, J. F. Larney, and G. Sposito. 2018. Managing irrigation for soil health in arid and semi-arid regions. In D. A. Reicosky (ed.) Managing Soil Health for Sustainable Agriculture Vol. 2, Burleigh Dodd Science Publishing, Cambridge, UK. ISBN-13: 9781786761927,

Hembree, K. J., J. DiTomaso, A. Shrestha, and R. Smith. 2013. Special Weed Problems. pp. 532-538. In L. Bettiga (ed.) Grape Pest Management Manual, 3rd Ed., Univ. of  Calif., Div. of Agric. & Nat. Res., Oakland, CA.

McGourty, G., K. J. Hembree, C. Ingels, and A. Shrestha. 2013. Vineyard Floor Management. pp. 499-511. In L. Bettiga (ed.) Grape Pest Management Manual, 3rd Ed., Univ. of  Calif., Div. of Agric. & Nat. Res., Oakland, CA.

McGiffen Jr, M., A. Shrestha, and S. A. Fennimore. 2014. Chemical control methods. In S. A. Fennimore and C. A. Bell (ed.) Principles of Weed Control, 4th Ed., California Weed Science Society. pp. 89-133.

Hanson, B., A. Fischer, A. Mchughen, M. Jaseiniuk, A. Jhala, and A. Shrestha. 2014. Herbicide-resistant crops and weeds. In S. A. Fennimore and C. A. Bell (ed.) Principles of Weed Control, 4th Ed., California Weed Science Society. pp. 168-188.

Lanini, T. W., A. Shrestha, and C. Wilen. 2008. Weeds. pp. 147-172 In M. L. Flint (ed.) Integrated Pest management for Avocados. University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program, Davis, CA.

Shrestha, A., D. R. Clements, and M. K. Upadhyaya. 2004. Weed management in agroecosystems: towards a holistic approach. pp. 451-477 In Recent Research Developments in Crop Sci., Vol.1 (2004) Part-II. Research Signpost, Trivandrum, India.


Clement, D. R., M. K. Upadhyaya, S. Joshi, and A. Shrestha (ed.). 2022. Global Plant Invasions. Springer Nature.

Upadhyaya, M. K., D. R. Clements, and A. Shrestha (ed). 2022. Persistence Strategy of Weeds. Wiley-Blackwell.

Clements, D. R. and A. Shrestha (ed.). 2004. New Dimensions in Agroecology. Food Products Press, An Imprint of Haworth Press, Binghamton, New York.

Shrestha, A. (ed.) 2003.Cropping Systems: Trends and Advances. Food Products Press, An Imprint of Haworth Press, Binghamton, New York.